Biokémiai és Molekuláris Biológiai Intézet | Tudóstér
In this study, we examined the ízületi fájdalom az emelőemelőkben between the hippocampal volume laterality index and the relative lengths of the second index finger and fourth ring finger digits 2D:4D in healthy female subjects.
The 2D:4D ratio is fixed in utero, and the ratio is higher in women than in men. There is evidence that this ratio is an indicator of the intrauterine concentration of testosterone, which influences the development of different regions of proximal intersection syndrome brain.
Assessing the volume of different parts of the brain of 40 healthy adult female students by magnetic resonance imaging MRIwe found that the 2D:4D ratio was associated with an asymmetry in the hippocampal sub-regions.
Smaller volume on the left side was found in the posterior part of the hippocampus in females with a low masculine type 2D:4D ratio. On the other hand, smaller volume on the left side was found in the middle part of the h; ippocampus in females with a high female type 2D:4D ratio.
Thus, the development of the middle and posterior regions of the hippocampal formation may respond in opposite ways to prenatal levels of testosterone. Other brain regions such as the amygdala, the cerebral cortex, the total volume hippocampus, and the head of the hippocampus did not show such a difference. D Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. E-mail address: janos. Kallai et al.
Introduction Recent studies support the presence of significant gender differences in several psychiatric disorders that may reflect the interplay of sex hormones as proximal intersection syndrome as neurodevelopmental and psychosocial sex differences Leung and Chue, Gonadal hormones, such as androgen, act in an organizational role before birth and influence the development of different brain areas, brain and body asymmetry, handedness, sexual orientation and cognitive skills in humans Kimura, In addition to brain laterality differences, other types of sex-dependent traits have been found, such as the relative lengths of the second index finger and fourth ring finger digits 2D:4D ratio in the right and left hands in females and males Manning et al.
The ratio between the length of the second and fourth digits in the right and left hands has a sexually dimorphic pattern. In comparison to females, males tend to have longer fourth digits in relationship to their second digits. It is thought that low 2D:4D ratios are associated with high levels of prenatal testosterone and low oestrogen, and that high 2D:4D ratios are associated with low levels of testosterone könyökbetegség okai high levels of oestrogen in utero because a the sex difference in the 2D:4D ratio appears as early as 2 years of age and does not change at puberty Manning et al.
This correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and hormonal levels in adults may originate from an fájdalom a váll ízületeiben between the 2D:4D ratio and prenatal hormonal level, with the 2D:4D ratio in adults reflecting prenatal hormonal conditions Manning et al. The ability of androgenic steroids to proximal intersection syndrome the 2D:4D ratio is indicated by a study of homosexual men and women. The right-hand 2D:4D ratio of homosexual women is significantly more masculine i.
The differentiation of the genital system and the appendicular skeleton in vertebrates is controlled by Homeobox Hox genes. Hox-d genes play a major role in the formation of an anatomical and physiological subdivision of the gut, proximal intersection syndrome ileocaecal sphincter, and the proper digits, and therefore are important for the development of the lumbosacral area as well as for proper limb and urogenital development Zákány and Duboule, The distal limbs and the genital eminence are regions of apical growth and involve epithelial—mesenchymal interactions; they represent morphogenetic ends of the body, digits at the distal end of the limbs Kondo et al.
Manning et al. However, the exact nature of these influences on the developing brain remains unclear.
The prenatal testosterone concentration is critical for the differentiation of the laterality of several parts of the nervous system, and the development of visual— spatial judgment, speed, endurance and physical strength Geschwind and Galaburda, ; Hugdahl, ; Kimura, According to the testosterone hypothesis of the development of brain laterality formulated by Geschwind and Galaburdatestosterone in utero inhibits the proximal intersection syndrome development of the left hemisphere, thus setting the stage for symmetry rather than asymmetry as a working principle between the cerebral hemispheres.
Significant brain asymmetries in normal subjects are seen in both of the cerebral hemispheres Galaburda,as well as in the hippocampus Pruessner et al. Volumetric differences are frequently found between the two sides of the hippocampus in magnetic resonance proximal intersection syndrome MRI.
Unilateral volume decreases or atrophy of the hippocampal formation J. MRI studies of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder have found that subjects who underwent physical or sexual abuse in childhood show smaller proximal intersection syndrome hippocampal volume relative to matched controls without showing a corresponding decrease in the volumes of the amygdala, the caudate, and the temporal lobe Bremner et al.
Brachiocephalic coxarthrosis Közös üdülőhelyek a Sverdlovski régióban that left brachiocephalic vein is anatomically longer and has more smaller tributaries than the right one2,3.
Chronic schizophrenic patients show a bilateral reduction in the volume of the hippocampal formation compared with matched healthy controls. The extent of the reduction has been related to the severity of functional disorganization inappropriate affect, positive formal thought disorder, and bizarre behavior but not to psychomotor poverty apathy, asociality, alogia or reality distortion hallucinations, delusions.
However, no significant correlation has been reported between the clinical symptoms on psychiatric rating scales and the rate of hippocampus asymmetry Fukuzako et al.
Shenton et al.
Elevated levels of cortisol during depressive episodes and posttraumatic stress could cause hippocampal damage, leading to a reduction in volume Driessen et al. Even though the effects of epilepsy Juhász et al. There are some experimental results on the correlation between intrauterine hormonal concentration, currently circulating hormonal level, verbal recall performance, chronic stress, several psychiatric illnesses, individual brain development, and volume of the hippocampal formation Bremner et al.
However the exact nature of lateral volume differences in the hippocampal formation remains unclear Sullivan et al. In the present study, the 2D:4D ratio was considered as an indicator of intrauterine testosterone concentration. We examined the 2D:4D ratio and circulating endogenous testosterone concentrations in relation to volumetric findings in subregions of the hippocampus in healthy adult women.
Subjects Forty female proximal intersection syndrome from the general population of the University of Pécs were recruited through advertisements. All volunteers were interviewed to ensure that they had no history of psychiatric or neurological illness.
All subjects scored in the normal range on the SCLR, were free of chronic medical conditions, and were not taking any medications that could influence the radioimmunoassay results. A full-scale Wechsler IQ Kun and Szegedi, score below was a criterion for exclusion from the study. All subjects were right-handed as indicated by the Chapman and Chapman Handedness Scale with righthanded scores from 11 to the upper quartile of the Handedness scores. Subjects were reimbursed for their participation.
Permission for the protocol was given by the Regional Research Ethics Committee of the Pécs Medical Center, and participants gave informed consent.
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Measurement of second to fourth digit ratio The method of assessment of the right and left hand fingers was followed as described by Manning The length of the second and fourth digits was measured on the ventral surface of the hand from the basal crease of the digit proximal proximal intersection syndrome the palm to the tip of the digit Fig.
Vernier calipers were used throughout this study. The measurement was performed three times by the same operator. The digit ratio was calculated by dividing the length of the second digit by that of the fourth digit 2D:4D. The repeatability of similar measurements made directly on digits has been high in previous studies e. The results of the three measures were averaged and con- J.
MR investigation MRI-based volumetry was performed in all cases using a previously described method Watson et al. All scans were performed on a 1.
Standard head position was used during the measurements, and all data were saved proximal intersection syndrome 8-bit grayscale DICOM format for further analysis. Image analysis Images were transferred to a Suse Linux 7. Six regions of interest ROI were measured: hippocampus, amygdala and a 3 mm thickness of hemisphere on both sides in accordance with the anatomic boundaries described below.
CSF spaces mi az ízületi betegségek excluded from all parenchymal measurements, except the hemisphere. All ROIs were measured sequentially, slice-by-slice 1 mmusing a mousedriven cursor, for manual tracing. Absolute volumes of right, left, and total hippocampus and amygdala were defined independently by two observers. The volumetric procedure was carried out manually.
The averaged volumes were used for further analysis. To assess volume differences in MR images of hemisphere, amygdala, entire hippocampus, and anterior headmiddle body and posterior tail portions of hippocampus see Fig. VDI indicates the percentage of the right to left volume ratio see Table 1. A positive score indicates that the right side is larger than the left side, and a negative score indicates the left side is larger than the right. Special sub-regions of brain volume were hogyan kezeljük a váll instabilitását to carry out relative volume calculations.
Small, welldefined brain regions were drawn from the level of foramen interventrivulare Monroi in the direction of the occipital lobe. The volumes of these 3-mm-thick slices were treated as brain volume BV. The relative Fig. A schematic representation of a female and a male type left hand. The length of the second digit 2D and the fourth digit 4D was measured from the basal crease of the digit to the tip. Proximal intersection syndrome 2D:4D ratio was calculated by dividing the length of the second digit by that of the fourth.
The 2D:4D ratio was found to be negatively related to prenatal testosterone level. Right hippocampus Left hippocampus Total hippocampus Hippocampus right—left difference index Right hippocampus head Left hippocampus head Total hippocampus head Head right—left difference index Right hippocampus body Left hippocampus body Total hippocampus body Body right—left difference index Right hippocampus tail Left hippocampus tail Total hippocampus tail Tail lateraity index Right amygdala Left amygdala Total amygdala Amygdala right—left difference index Right hemisphere Left hemisphere Total hemisphere Hemisphere right—left proximal intersection syndrome index 2.
Anatomic boundaries of the regions of interest A standard anatomic protocol was used to define the borders of proximal intersection syndrome hippocampus and amygdala published by Watson et al.
The measurements included hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus, subicular complex from subiculum to entorhinal cortex, alveus and fimbria. It is difficult to define the boundaries of the hippocampus from its most anterior portion, the hippocampal head.
The most reliable structure separating the head of the hippocampus from the amygdala in this region is proximal intersection syndrome inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. Hence to standardize the measurement, the csípőfájdalom éjjel drawing began anteriorly from the first slice where the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle appeared. To outline the boundary, the drawing progressed along the hippocampal sulcus, medially to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle and turned up laterally along the choroidal fissure.
The most posterior section of the hippocampus was measured in the sections with the crus of fornix clearly separated from the proximal intersection syndrome and its fimbria.
The average length measured was 30 mm for portions of hippocampus, see Fig. Anatomical boundaries of the hippocampus were drawn on the coronal slices. When a contour of the ROI was accepted, the projection area immediately appeared on the sagittal and axial images as well, allowing us to make the appropriate corrections if they were necessary.
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Separating different subregions on the hippocampal models seems to be promising Watson et al. Instead of visual subregional separation of the hippocampus, a mechanical partition was used. The distance between the most anterior and the most posterior points of the calculated hippocampus model was divided into three equal parts. The space between the two points of intersection was labeled as the middle part of the hippocampus.
Respectively, the first compartment was anterior and the third was considered as a posterior subregion of the hippocampus.
However, the anterior proximal intersection syndrome corresponds mostly to the head, the middle part to the body, and the posterior part to the tail of the hippocampus. Salivary testosterone assay Subjects provided two samples of saliva for radioimmunoassay of testosterone using a method described previously by Walker and Johnson et al. The first sample was collected at the start of a test session assessing cognitive abilities, at 8.
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F 10 min, and the second at the end of the examination at 11 h F 20 min. In order to avoid saliva impurities, subjects were asked to refrain from eating, drinking alcohol, coffee or teaand smoking for at least 5 h prior to saliva collection. Each saliva sample consisted of 8—9 ml of saliva collected in a glass tube pre-treated with sodium acid as a bacterostatic agent. Saliva specimens were stored at 20 8C until the completion of the study, then assayed in a single lot.
The intra-assay coefficient of variation averaged 4.
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Each of the saliva samples was assayed in duplicate. The intraclass proximal intersection syndrome between duplicates for testosterone was 0. For each subject, the mean values from the two saliva samples were used to indicate the endogenous concentration of testosteQ rone.
The mean of the sample was Table 1 presents the right—left volumes and volume differences of the assessed proximal intersection syndrome regions. The results indicate that volumes are larger on the right side except for the middle hippocampus portion and the amygdala. Volume significantly differed in the case of the total, anterior and posterior regions of the hippocampus but not for the middle region. In addition, volumes of the right hemisphere were larger than volumes of the left Table 2.
Univariate regression parameters between each of the right, left and right and left 2D:4D ratio and all assessed brain variables were estimated to determine the predictive power of each brain variable independently.
Univariate regression analysis Table 3 revealed that the rate of the volume difference of the posterior part of the hippocampus was negatively correlated with the right hand Fig. Furthermore, the volume difference rate of the middle hippocampus correlated with the left hand Fig.
In contrast, the rate of rightward laterality in masculine type 2D:4D ratios is larger in the posterior hippocampus and smaller in the middle regions in females.
Discussion The results of the present study show that healthy female subjects whose scores on a psychiatric symptoms rating scale are in a normal range, who are in the above average IQ range, and who are without medical illness showed powerful volumetric differences between the left and right sides of several portions of the brain.
Except for the middle part of the hippocampus and amygdala, the volumes of the right side of each assessed hippocampal portion and the right hemisphere were larger than the left ones. The difference of the posterior tail and middle body portions of hippocampus was correlated with the 2D:4D ratios but in an opposite manner.
The ratio of the right and left second to fourth digit length 2D:4D was correlated negatively with the rate of volume difference of the posterior hippocampus, suggesting that intrauterine testosterone level played an essential role in proximal intersection syndrome development of the laterality rate of this formation.
Low intrauterine testosterone feminine type 2D:4D Fig. Three-dimensional illustration of the hippocampus.
Közös üdülőhelyek a Sverdlovski régióban
At the proximal intersection syndrome time, we did not find volume differences in other assessed symmetrical anatomical structures associating with 2D:4D ratios. The circulating endogenous testosterone concentration was not associated with the analyzed right—left brain volume differences.
These results suggest that different parts of the hippocampus, especially the medial and the posterior regions, develop differently in response to the effects of intrauterine concentration of testosterone.
The rate 22 VDI Hipp. Posterior tail 16 10 4 -2 -8 0. Regression line for the association between the right 2D:4D ratios and the posterior hippocampus.
Posterior tail 22 16 10 4 -2 -8 0. Regression line for the association between the left 2D:4D ratios and the posterior hippocampus. At the same time low intrauterine testosterone was associated with a larger right middle hippocampus volume.
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In contrast high intrauterine testosterone masculine type 2D:4D was associated with larger right posterior and smaller right middle hippocampus volume. Other assessed asymmetric brain structures, amygdalas, hemispheres, and the total HF and anterior region of HF did not relate to proximal intersection syndrome ratios.
On the other hand circulating testosterone did not correlate with 2D:4D and the analyzed brain asymmetries. Three theories have been advanced that link prenatal testosterone exposure to individual differences in rate of cerebral lateralization, but most of these have focused on cortical hemispheric differences Annett, ; Geschwind and Galaburda, ; Bryden,pruning of the collosal axons during neonatal 22 VDI Hipp.
Regression line for the association between the overall 2D:4D ratios and the posterior hippocampus.